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According  to the rules of the ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization, all  duty-free shops purchase products must be placed in confidential bags. It is convenient for tourists to bring tax-free products for quick clearance. Detached  has been certified by the ICAO International Civil Aviation  Organization to produce plastic packaging shopping bags for all types of  airport duty-free shops. Welcome all friends to inquire

The  International Civil Aviation Organization is the specialized agency  responsible for handling international civil aviation affairs in the UN  system. Headquartered in Montreal, Canada, there are 185 member countries. Its main activities are to study the issues of international civil  aviation, formulate international standards and regulations for civil  aviation, encourage the use of security measures, harmonize business  regulations, and simplify international border procedures.

Set up

ICAO was formerly known as the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) established under the 1919 Paris Convention. From  November 1st to December 7th, 1944, 52 countries signed the  "International Convention on Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)" in  Chicago and established the Provisional International Civil Aviation  Organization (PICAO) in accordance with the provisions of the  Convention. The 1947 Convention on International Civil Aviation entered into force, and ICAO was formally established. In May of the same year, ICAO officially became a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Purpose and purpose

The purpose and purpose of ICAO is to develop the principles and  technologies of international navigation and promote the planning and  development of international air transport to:

To ensure the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation around the world;
Encourage the design and operation of aircraft for peaceful purposes;
Encourage the development of routes, airports and navigation facilities for international civil aviation applications;
Meet the needs of the people of the world for safe, normal, effective and economical air transport;
To prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;
Ensure that the rights of the contracting states are fully respected  and that each State party has a fair opportunity to operate  international air transport companies;
Avoid differential treatment among contracting countries;
Promote flight safety on international flights;
Promote the development of international civil aviation in all aspects.
The above nine articles relate to two aspects of international navigation and international air transport. The  former is a technical issue, mainly security; the latter is economic  and legal issues, and it is mainly fair and reasonable and respects  sovereignty. The common purpose of both is to ensure the safe, normal, effective and orderly development of international civil aviation.

organization

The International Civil Affairs Organization is composed of a  three-level framework of the General Assembly, the Council and the  Secretariat.

First, the General Assembly

The General Assembly is the highest authority of ICAO. The General Assembly meets every three years in general and special meetings can be held in special circumstances. The work during the conference is to elect the members of the council,  review the reports of the council, vote on the annual budget, determine  the financial arrangements, and consider proposals submitted to the  conference.

Second, the Council

The  Council is a permanent body responsible to the General Assembly. It  consists of 33 States Parties elected by the General Assembly. There  are three categories of members: the first category is the member  countries that have a particularly important position in the field of  air transport, the second category is the member countries that have  made outstanding contributions to the provision of international  navigational facilities, and the third category is the member countries  of the regional representation. The council meets three times a year. The duration of each meeting is about two months. The  Council has established eight committees for financial, technical  cooperation, illegal interference, navigation, new navigation systems,  transportation, joint navigation, and Edward Awards. Before each meeting of the Council, the committees meet separately to submit documents, reports, or questions to the council. The President of the Council is elected by the Council. The current President of the Council is Dr. Assad Kotaite (Lebanese).

Third, the secretariat

The  secretariat is the permanent administrative agency of ICAO. The  Secretary-General is responsible for ensuring the smooth progress of  ICAO's work. The Secretary-General is appointed by the Council and the current Secretary-General is General Costa Pelera (Brazilians). The  Secretariat consists of the Bureau of Navigation, the Air Transport  Bureau, the Legal Affairs Bureau, the Technical Cooperation Bureau, and  the Executive Bureau. The Bureau also has five offices, the Finance  Division and the Office. In addition, the Secretariat has a Regional  Affairs Office and seven regional offices, which are located in Bangkok.  Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City, Navarro, and Paris. The regional offices are directly led by the Secretary-General. The  main task is to establish and assist the contracting states to implement  the international standards and construction measures and regional  plans formulated by ICAO.

China's accession

China  is one of the founding members of the International Civil Aviation  Organization. The old Chinese government signed the Convention on  International Civil Aviation in 1944 and became a member state in 1946. In 1971, ICAO passed a resolution that recognized the People's Republic of China as the only legal representative of China. In 1974, China recognized the Convention on International Civil Aviation and participated in ICAO activities. In  the same year, China was elected as a second-class member of the  Council. So far it has been re-elected for eight consecutive terms as a  second-class member. In  Montreal, there is a representative office of the Chinese ICAO Council.  The current representative is Qian Zemin, deputy director of the former  International Cooperation Department. The

The main work of ICAO

In  accordance with the International Civil Aviation Convention (Chicago  Convention), ICAO develops principles and technologies for international  navigation. In  the past two decades, various new technologies have developed rapidly,  and the global economy has also undergone tremendous changes in the  environment. This has created an unprecedented challenge to the  international civil aviation navigation and transportation management  system. In order to enhance work efficiency and pertinence, and continue to  maintain its dominant position in international civil aviation, ICAO has  developed a strategic work plan (Strategic AcitonPlan) and  re-determined its work priorities. It was approved by its board of  directors for implementation in February 1997.

I. Regulations (Constitutional Affairs)

Revision of current international civil aviation regulations and development of new legal instruments. The main projects are:

1. Urges  more countries to adhere to Article 3 of the Chicago Convention on the  Use of Force against Civil Aircraft and Sub-article 83 Submission of  Certain Safety Duties from the State Registered by the Aircraft to the  State of Use when Licensed, Leasing and Exchange of Aircraft (China has already joined).

2. Urges more countries to join the International Flight Transit Agreement (China has not yet joined).

3. Drafting the "New Warsaw Convention" on the Uniform Carrier's Liability System.

4. Drafting an international legal framework for navigation satellite services.

Second, Air Navigation

The  development and refreshment of international technical standards and  recommended measures on navigation are the most important tasks of ICAO.  Seventeen of the 18 annexes to the Chicago Convention are related to  navigation technology. The Strategic Work Plan requires that this work keep pace with the  development of international civil aviation and maintain the  applicability of these standards and recommended measures.

Planning  of international routes networks in various regions, authorizing  relevant countries to provide navigation aids and air traffic and  meteorological services on international voyages, and proposing advice  on the navigational facilities and services of States within their own  territories are the ICAO Regional Planning (Regional "AirNavigation Planning"'s responsibilities are handled by seven regional offices. In  recent years, as countries have increasingly pursued their interests in  international voyages, conflicts and disputes have been increasing (for  example, in the airspace of the South China Sea), making it difficult  for ICAO’s unified navigation planning to be fully implemented. The strategic work plan calls for strengthening the effectiveness of  regional planning mechanisms and better coordinating the different  requirements of countries.

Third, Safety Supervision (Safety Oversight Programme)

In  recent years, the average number of major accidents in civil aviation  in the world has averaged 1.44 vehicles/million flights. With the  increase in air traffic, if the ratio does not fall, the absolute number  of accidents will also rise to unacceptable levels. Since  the beginning of the 1990s, ICAO has begun implementing safety  monitoring programs. The main content is that all countries accept  voluntarily ICAO's assessment of the integrity of its aviation  authority's safety regulations and the airline's operational safety  level. This plan will be developed into a mandatory "Safety Audit Programme"  at the 32nd General Assembly, requiring all Contracting States to accept  ICAO's safety assessment.

Safety  issues exist not only in aircraft operations but also in other areas of  navigation, such as air traffic control and airport operations. In order to cover aspects not covered by the safety inspection plan,  ICAO has also launched the "Programme for Identifying Safety  Shortcomings in the Air Navigation Field" program in recent years.

As a theoretical study of aviation safety, currently implemented  projects include "Human Factors" and "Prevention of Controlled Flight  into Terrain."

Fourth, stop illegal interference (Aviation Security)

The suppression of illegal interference is commonly known in China as security or air defense security. The focus of this work is to urge Contracting States to strengthen the  security of airports in particular in accordance with the standards and  recommended measures set out in Annex 17 “Safeguards”, and to  vigorously carry out the ICAO security training plan.

V. Implementation of the New Navigation System (ICAO CNS/ATM Systems)

The  new navigation system, the “ICAO Communication, Navigation,  Surveillance/Air Traffic Control System”, is a revolutionary navigation  system that integrates computer network technology, satellite navigation  and communication technology, and high-speed digital data communication  technology. It will replace the current land The basic navigation system greatly improves navigational efficiency. In  the late 1980s, it was proposed by an international organization. The  concept completed global planning in the early 1990s and has now entered  the transitional implementation phase. There are still many non-technical issues to solve in order to achieve universal application of this new system. Challenges tackled by the Strategic Work Plan include the legal  framework for satellite navigation services (GNSS), operational  agencies, coordination and cooperation in the implementation of progress  across the globe, regions and countries, financing and cost recovery.

Air Transport Services Regulation (Air Transport Services Regulation)

The  focus of ICAO's work in the field of air transport is “facilitation”,  which means “eliminating obstacles to promote the free and unimpeded  movement of aircraft and passengers, crew, baggage, cargo and mail  across international borders”. The only non-navigational technical issue among the 18 annexes is  Annex 9 “Facility Amendments” to the proposed measures to simplify  standards.

In  terms of air transport management systems, the 1944 International Civil  Aviation Conference tried to formulate a multilateral agreement on  commercial air rights to replace a large number of bilateral agreements,  but did not agree with the majority of representatives. Therefore, the exchange of commercial air rights between countries is still determined by bilateral negotiations. In  this respect, ICAO’s responsibilities are to study the impact of  changes in the global economic environment on the air transport  management system, provide analysis reports and recommendations for  countries, and establish specifications for certain operations in air  transport. The strategic work plan requires ICAO to carry out work that includes:  revise the operational rules of the computer reservation system and  study the impact of the General Agreement on Trade in Services on the  air transport management system.

Statistics

Article  54 of the Chicago Convention stipulates that the council must request,  collect, review, and publish statistical data, and every weak citizen  has the obligation to submit such information. This  is not only necessary to guide the deliberations of ICAO, but it is  also essential to assist civil aviation authorities in various countries  in formulating civil aviation policies based on realities. These  statistics mainly include: carrier traffic, traffic in the sub-segment,  origin and destination of flight, carrier finance, fleet and personnel,  airport operations and finance, route facilities business and finance,  aircraft registered by various countries, Safety, general aviation and pilot licenses.

ICAO’s statistical work also includes economic forecasting and assisting countries in planning civil aviation development.

VIII. Technical cooperation

Before  the 1990s, 5% of the United Nations Development Program assistance  funds were used for civil aviation projects in developing countries and  entrusted to the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau. Since  then, the department has changed its focus on assistance and has  basically not allocated funds for civil aviation projects. In  view of the fact that many developing countries have introduced new  technologies for civil aviation that rely mainly on external funds, ICAO  emphasizes that it must continue to maintain its technical cooperation  mechanism and the source of funds. First, it must rely on donations from  developed countries, and secondly it must rely on the aided countries  to raise funds for themselves. Implemented by the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau. At  present, many developed countries believe that ICAO’s technical  cooperation mechanism is inefficient and has many people, and it also  needs to draw 13% of the management fee from the project funds and  seldom make donations to it. The main choice is to directly implement  bilateral cooperation with the recipient countries. project.

Nine, training

ICAO  provides assistance to civil aviation training institutes in various  countries and regions to enable them to provide on-the-job training and  foreign training for civil aviation professionals in various fields. The strategic work plan requires that the focus of training in the  future is to strengthen the standardization and pertinence of the  curriculum.

ICAO Member States (185)

Indonesia  Maldives Panama Iran Malibia New Guinea Iraq Malta Paraguay Italy  Marshall Islands Peru Ireland Mauritania Philippines Philippines Israel  Israel Mauritius Jamaica Mexico Portugal Japan Micronesia Qatar Jordan  Monaco Korea Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Kenya Morocco Romania Kiribati  Mozambique Russia Kuwait Myanmar  Burundi Kyrgyzstan Namibia Saint Lucia Laos Nauru Saint Vincent and the  Grenaidas Latvia Nepal San Marino Lebanon Netherlands Sao Tome and  Principe Lesotho New Zealand Saudi Arabia Liberia Nicaragua Senegal  Libya Niger Seychelles Lithuania Nigeria Sierra Leone Luxembourg Norway  Singapore Madagascar Oman Slovakia  Malawi Pakistan Slovenia Malaya Palau Solomon Islands Somalia Uruguay  South Africa Uzbekistan Spain Vanuatu Sri Lanka Venezuela-Sudan Vietnam  Suriname West  Samoa Swaziland Yemen Sweden Congo (C) Switzerland Zambia Syria  Zimbabwe Tajikistan Thailand Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United  Arab Emirates United Kingdom Tanzania United States Afghan Burkina Nafplio  Egypt Albania Burundi El Salvador Algeria Cambodia Equatorial Guinea  Angola Cameroon Eritrea Antigua and Barbuda Canada Estonia Argentina  Cape Verde Ethiopia Armenia Central African Republic Fiji Australia Chad  Finland Austria Chile France Azerbaijan China Gabon Bahamas Colombia  Colombia Gambia Bahrain Comoros Georgia Bangladesh Congo (Brazzaville) Cook Islands, Barbados, Canada