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The International Civil Aviation Organization is the specialized agency responsible for handling international civil aviation affairs in the UN system. Headquartered in Montreal, Canada, there are 185 member countries. Its main activities are to study the issues of international civil aviation, formulate international standards and regulations for civil aviation, encourage the use of security measures, harmonize business regulations, and simplify international border procedures.
ICAO was formerly known as the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) established under the 1919 Paris Convention. From November 1st to December 7th, 1944, 52 countries signed the "International Convention on Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)" in Chicago and established the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) in accordance with the provisions of the Convention. The 1947 Convention on International Civil Aviation entered into force, and ICAO was formally established. In May of the same year, ICAO officially became a specialized agency of the United Nations.
Purpose and purpose
The purpose and purpose of ICAO is to develop the principles and technologies of international navigation and promote the planning and development of international air transport to:
To ensure the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation around the world;
Encourage the design and operation of aircraft for peaceful purposes;
Encourage the development of routes, airports and navigation facilities for international civil aviation applications;
Meet the needs of the people of the world for safe, normal, effective and economical air transport;
To prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;
Ensure that the rights of the contracting states are fully respected and that each State party has a fair opportunity to operate international air transport companies;
Avoid differential treatment among contracting countries;
Promote flight safety on international flights;
Promote the development of international civil aviation in all aspects.
The above nine articles relate to two aspects of international navigation and international air transport. The former is a technical issue, mainly security; the latter is economic and legal issues, and it is mainly fair and reasonable and respects sovereignty. The common purpose of both is to ensure the safe, normal, effective and orderly development of international civil aviation.
The International Civil Affairs Organization is composed of a three-level framework of the General Assembly, the Council and the Secretariat.
First, the General Assembly
The General Assembly is the highest authority of ICAO. The General Assembly meets every three years in general and special meetings can be held in special circumstances. The work during the conference is to elect the members of the council, review the reports of the council, vote on the annual budget, determine the financial arrangements, and consider proposals submitted to the conference.
Second, the Council
The Council is a permanent body responsible to the General Assembly. It consists of 33 States Parties elected by the General Assembly. There are three categories of members: the first category is the member countries that have a particularly important position in the field of air transport, the second category is the member countries that have made outstanding contributions to the provision of international navigational facilities, and the third category is the member countries of the regional representation. The council meets three times a year. The duration of each meeting is about two months. The Council has established eight committees for financial, technical cooperation, illegal interference, navigation, new navigation systems, transportation, joint navigation, and Edward Awards. Before each meeting of the Council, the committees meet separately to submit documents, reports, or questions to the council. The President of the Council is elected by the Council. The current President of the Council is Dr. Assad Kotaite (Lebanese).
Third, the secretariat
The secretariat is the permanent administrative agency of ICAO. The Secretary-General is responsible for ensuring the smooth progress of ICAO's work. The Secretary-General is appointed by the Council and the current Secretary-General is General Costa Pelera (Brazilians). The Secretariat consists of the Bureau of Navigation, the Air Transport Bureau, the Legal Affairs Bureau, the Technical Cooperation Bureau, and the Executive Bureau. The Bureau also has five offices, the Finance Division and the Office. In addition, the Secretariat has a Regional Affairs Office and seven regional offices, which are located in Bangkok. Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City, Navarro, and Paris. The regional offices are directly led by the Secretary-General. The main task is to establish and assist the contracting states to implement the international standards and construction measures and regional plans formulated by ICAO.
China is one of the founding members of the International Civil Aviation Organization. The old Chinese government signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation in 1944 and became a member state in 1946. In 1971, ICAO passed a resolution that recognized the People's Republic of China as the only legal representative of China. In 1974, China recognized the Convention on International Civil Aviation and participated in ICAO activities. In the same year, China was elected as a second-class member of the Council. So far it has been re-elected for eight consecutive terms as a second-class member. In Montreal, there is a representative office of the Chinese ICAO Council. The current representative is Qian Zemin, deputy director of the former International Cooperation Department. The
The main work of ICAO
In accordance with the International Civil Aviation Convention (Chicago Convention), ICAO develops principles and technologies for international navigation. In the past two decades, various new technologies have developed rapidly, and the global economy has also undergone tremendous changes in the environment. This has created an unprecedented challenge to the international civil aviation navigation and transportation management system. In order to enhance work efficiency and pertinence, and continue to maintain its dominant position in international civil aviation, ICAO has developed a strategic work plan (Strategic AcitonPlan) and re-determined its work priorities. It was approved by its board of directors for implementation in February 1997.
I. Regulations (Constitutional Affairs)
Revision of current international civil aviation regulations and development of new legal instruments. The main projects are:
1. Urges more countries to adhere to Article 3 of the Chicago Convention on the Use of Force against Civil Aircraft and Sub-article 83 Submission of Certain Safety Duties from the State Registered by the Aircraft to the State of Use when Licensed, Leasing and Exchange of Aircraft (China has already joined).
2. Urges more countries to join the International Flight Transit Agreement (China has not yet joined).
3. Drafting the "New Warsaw Convention" on the Uniform Carrier's Liability System.
4. Drafting an international legal framework for navigation satellite services.
Second, Air Navigation
The development and refreshment of international technical standards and recommended measures on navigation are the most important tasks of ICAO. Seventeen of the 18 annexes to the Chicago Convention are related to navigation technology. The Strategic Work Plan requires that this work keep pace with the development of international civil aviation and maintain the applicability of these standards and recommended measures.
Planning of international routes networks in various regions, authorizing relevant countries to provide navigation aids and air traffic and meteorological services on international voyages, and proposing advice on the navigational facilities and services of States within their own territories are the ICAO Regional Planning (Regional "AirNavigation Planning"'s responsibilities are handled by seven regional offices. In recent years, as countries have increasingly pursued their interests in international voyages, conflicts and disputes have been increasing (for example, in the airspace of the South China Sea), making it difficult for ICAO’s unified navigation planning to be fully implemented. The strategic work plan calls for strengthening the effectiveness of regional planning mechanisms and better coordinating the different requirements of countries.
Third, Safety Supervision (Safety Oversight Programme)
In recent years, the average number of major accidents in civil aviation in the world has averaged 1.44 vehicles/million flights. With the increase in air traffic, if the ratio does not fall, the absolute number of accidents will also rise to unacceptable levels. Since the beginning of the 1990s, ICAO has begun implementing safety monitoring programs. The main content is that all countries accept voluntarily ICAO's assessment of the integrity of its aviation authority's safety regulations and the airline's operational safety level. This plan will be developed into a mandatory "Safety Audit Programme" at the 32nd General Assembly, requiring all Contracting States to accept ICAO's safety assessment.
Safety issues exist not only in aircraft operations but also in other areas of navigation, such as air traffic control and airport operations. In order to cover aspects not covered by the safety inspection plan, ICAO has also launched the "Programme for Identifying Safety Shortcomings in the Air Navigation Field" program in recent years.
As a theoretical study of aviation safety, currently implemented projects include "Human Factors" and "Prevention of Controlled Flight into Terrain."
Fourth, stop illegal interference (Aviation Security)
The suppression of illegal interference is commonly known in China as security or air defense security. The focus of this work is to urge Contracting States to strengthen the security of airports in particular in accordance with the standards and recommended measures set out in Annex 17 “Safeguards”, and to vigorously carry out the ICAO security training plan.
V. Implementation of the New Navigation System (ICAO CNS/ATM Systems)
The new navigation system, the “ICAO Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Control System”, is a revolutionary navigation system that integrates computer network technology, satellite navigation and communication technology, and high-speed digital data communication technology. It will replace the current land The basic navigation system greatly improves navigational efficiency. In the late 1980s, it was proposed by an international organization. The concept completed global planning in the early 1990s and has now entered the transitional implementation phase. There are still many non-technical issues to solve in order to achieve universal application of this new system. Challenges tackled by the Strategic Work Plan include the legal framework for satellite navigation services (GNSS), operational agencies, coordination and cooperation in the implementation of progress across the globe, regions and countries, financing and cost recovery.
Air Transport Services Regulation (Air Transport Services Regulation)
The focus of ICAO's work in the field of air transport is “facilitation”, which means “eliminating obstacles to promote the free and unimpeded movement of aircraft and passengers, crew, baggage, cargo and mail across international borders”. The only non-navigational technical issue among the 18 annexes is Annex 9 “Facility Amendments” to the proposed measures to simplify standards.
In terms of air transport management systems, the 1944 International Civil Aviation Conference tried to formulate a multilateral agreement on commercial air rights to replace a large number of bilateral agreements, but did not agree with the majority of representatives. Therefore, the exchange of commercial air rights between countries is still determined by bilateral negotiations. In this respect, ICAO’s responsibilities are to study the impact of changes in the global economic environment on the air transport management system, provide analysis reports and recommendations for countries, and establish specifications for certain operations in air transport. The strategic work plan requires ICAO to carry out work that includes: revise the operational rules of the computer reservation system and study the impact of the General Agreement on Trade in Services on the air transport management system.
Article 54 of the Chicago Convention stipulates that the council must request, collect, review, and publish statistical data, and every weak citizen has the obligation to submit such information. This is not only necessary to guide the deliberations of ICAO, but it is also essential to assist civil aviation authorities in various countries in formulating civil aviation policies based on realities. These statistics mainly include: carrier traffic, traffic in the sub-segment, origin and destination of flight, carrier finance, fleet and personnel, airport operations and finance, route facilities business and finance, aircraft registered by various countries, Safety, general aviation and pilot licenses.
ICAO’s statistical work also includes economic forecasting and assisting countries in planning civil aviation development.
VIII. Technical cooperation
Before the 1990s, 5% of the United Nations Development Program assistance funds were used for civil aviation projects in developing countries and entrusted to the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau. Since then, the department has changed its focus on assistance and has basically not allocated funds for civil aviation projects. In view of the fact that many developing countries have introduced new technologies for civil aviation that rely mainly on external funds, ICAO emphasizes that it must continue to maintain its technical cooperation mechanism and the source of funds. First, it must rely on donations from developed countries, and secondly it must rely on the aided countries to raise funds for themselves. Implemented by the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau. At present, many developed countries believe that ICAO’s technical cooperation mechanism is inefficient and has many people, and it also needs to draw 13% of the management fee from the project funds and seldom make donations to it. The main choice is to directly implement bilateral cooperation with the recipient countries. project.
ICAO provides assistance to civil aviation training institutes in various countries and regions to enable them to provide on-the-job training and foreign training for civil aviation professionals in various fields. The strategic work plan requires that the focus of training in the future is to strengthen the standardization and pertinence of the curriculum.
ICAO Member States (185)
Indonesia Maldives Panama Iran Malibia New Guinea Iraq Malta Paraguay Italy Marshall Islands Peru Ireland Mauritania Philippines Philippines Israel Israel Mauritius Jamaica Mexico Portugal Japan Micronesia Qatar Jordan Monaco Korea Kazakhstan Mongolia Moldova Kenya Morocco Romania Kiribati Mozambique Russia Kuwait Myanmar Burundi Kyrgyzstan Namibia Saint Lucia Laos Nauru Saint Vincent and the Grenaidas Latvia Nepal San Marino Lebanon Netherlands Sao Tome and Principe Lesotho New Zealand Saudi Arabia Liberia Nicaragua Senegal Libya Niger Seychelles Lithuania Nigeria Sierra Leone Luxembourg Norway Singapore Madagascar Oman Slovakia Malawi Pakistan Slovenia Malaya Palau Solomon Islands Somalia Uruguay South Africa Uzbekistan Spain Vanuatu Sri Lanka Venezuela-Sudan Vietnam Suriname West Samoa Swaziland Yemen Sweden Congo (C) Switzerland Zambia Syria Zimbabwe Tajikistan Thailand Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Tanzania United States Afghan Burkina Nafplio Egypt Albania Burundi El Salvador Algeria Cambodia Equatorial Guinea Angola Cameroon Eritrea Antigua and Barbuda Canada Estonia Argentina Cape Verde Ethiopia Armenia Central African Republic Fiji Australia Chad Finland Austria Chile France Azerbaijan China Gabon Bahamas Colombia Colombia Gambia Bahrain Comoros Georgia Bangladesh Congo (Brazzaville) Cook Islands, Barbados, Canada